History has provided us with a wide variety of societal collapses along with a variety and combination of reasons. Historical and scientific evidence has shown that climate change, the hostility of neighboring peoples, and contact with explorers or new visitors and the overall responses of a particular society to change or not to change have contributed greatly to the downfall of many societies, cultures and institutions.
Many people and educational systems are very knowledgeable of how societies have grown in complexity to be modern or “civilized.” But yet, few truly see with prophetic understanding why groups of people and institutions have collapsed at all foundational levels. These collapses reveal or paint a picture of the true heart and mind of mankind without divine wisdom. The best that way I can explain prophetic understanding and wisdom would be to see it as a divine “input” which enters into a culture or institution such as the church and to recognize the “output” or end-result before it happens (This is prophecy exercised in a practical way or societal manner). If the scent and sign of societal and institutional collapse is truly on the horizon, the initial output will be a mode of survival just before the collapse will manifest. By relating input and output variables, we can prophetically strain out the root causes which are soon to move from visible symptoms into a full blown collapse within man-made or man-centered religious systems today. (Note: This goes far beyond what some would call “Christian religion.” This will affect all institutional systems of man centered ideology.)
The culture of a group whether a church, organization, or sociopolitical institution, is defined by its “environment.” In my opinion, the natural state always comes before or predetermines a spiritual state. This is clearly recognized in the universal principle of sowing and reaping as well as a natural resurrection to provide our spiritual salvation.
I believe that we can look at natural inputs facing humanity today and clearly see the correlating or spiritual outputs which are already manifesting in this hour. The Lord has laid the following natural inputs upon my heart as I hope you will read below. These are also parallel spiritual inputs and will reflect the same end result for systems and institutions which have built upon sand by the hand of man.
a. Deforestation and the destruction of habitation
b. Soil issues such as erosion and soil fertility
c. Water management issues
e. Effects of introduced species on native populations
g. Climate Change
h. Build up of toxins in the environment
i. Energy shortages
When Easter Island was “discovered” by Europeans in 1722, it was a barren landscape with no trees over ten feet in height. The small numbers of inhabitants, around 2000, lived in a state of civil disorder and were thin and emaciated. Virtually no animals besides rats inhabited the island and the natives lacked sea-worthy boats. Understandably, the Europeans were mystified by the presence of great stone statues, some as high as 33 feet and weighing 82 tons. Even more impressive were the abandoned statues which were as tall as 65 feet and weighing as much as 270 tons.
How could such a people create or carve and then move such enormous structures? The answer lies in Easter Islands’ ecological past when the island was not a barren place. The Easter Island of ancient times supported a sub-tropical forest complete with the tall Easter Island Palm – a tree suitable for building homes, canoes and lattice works necessary for the construction of such massive statues. With the vegetation of the island, natives had fuel-wood and the resources to make rope. With their sea-worthy canoes, Easter Islanders lived off a steady diet of porpoise and a complex social structure developed complete with a centralized government and religious priests.
It was this Easter Island society / culture that built the famous statues and hauled them around the island using wooden platforms and rope constructed from the forest. The construction of these statues peaked from 1200 AD to 1500 AD, probably when the civilization was at its zenith. However, pollen analysis shows that at this time the tree population of the island was rapidly declining as deforestation was taking its toll. Around 1400 the Easter Island palm became extinct due to over-harvesting. Its capability to reproduce had become severely limited by the proliferation of rats, introduced by the islanders when they first arrived which ate its seeds. In the years after the disappearance of the palm, ancient garbage piles reveal that porpoise bones declined sharply. The islanders, no longer with the palm wood needed for canoe building, could no longer make journeys out to sea for seafood.
Consequently, the consumption of land birds, migratory birds and mollusks increased. Soon land birds went extinct and migratory bird numbers were severely reduced, thus spelling an end for Easter Island’s forests. Already under intense pressure by the human population for firewood and building material, the forests lost their animal pollinators and seed dispersers with the disappearance of the birds. Today, only one of the original 22 species of seabird still nests on Easter Island.
With the loss of their forest, the quality of life for Islanders plummeted. Streams and drinking water supplies dried up. Crop yields declined as wind, rain, and sunlight eroded top soils. Fires became a luxury since no wood could be found on the island and grasses had to be used for fuel. No longer could rope by manufactured to move the stone statues and they were ultimately abandoned. The Easter Islanders began to starve – lacking their access to porpoise meat and having depleted the island of birds. As life worsened, the orderly society disappeared and chaos and social disarray prevailed. Survivors formed bands and bitter fighting erupted. By the arrival of Europeans in 1722, there was almost no sign of the great civilization that once ruled the island other than the legacy of the strange statues. However, even these had fallen victim to the bands who desecrated the statues of rivals.
Easter Island is a prime example of what widespread deforestation can do to a society. As the forests are depleted, the quality of life falls and then social order is lost.
Natural deforestation and especially “spiritual deforestation” has had devastating affects upon numerous environments. Not only does deforestation affect the habitation of man – it also affects the actions of man to war against oneself. Throughout recorded history, the very best men and women that mankind has produced to stand for justice, peace, and godly righteousness have usually been systematically silenced and even murdered. Jesus Christ to John Wycliffe to Martin Luther King are just a few of countless numbers.
Oaks of Righteousness have been cut down throughout the generations into spiritual silence and the gifts (leaves of healing)within them systematically murdered under the hand of religious control and insecure leadership. Institutions of religion and man-centered governments have discarded the Tree of Life and have systematically created a barren spiritual landscape and environment where nothing grows into maturity to bare fruit. The Tree of Knowledge has been picked clean by man in his lust for greed and temporary wealth.
“Blessed is the one who does not walk in step with the wicked or stand in the way that sinners take or sit in the company of mockers, but whose delight is in the law of the LORD, and who meditates on his law day and night. That person is like a tree planted by streams of water, which yields its fruit in season and whose leaf does not wither, whatever they do will prosper.”
EROSION OF FERTILE SOIL
Natural and spiritual deforestation immediately leads to forms of soil erosion within the landscapes and environments of our lives.
The beginning of soil erosion leads to reduction in its water-holding (spirit-holding) capacity as well as the stability of soil aggregates. Fine-grained soil particles (clay and silt) and organic matter are preferentially removed by run-off. Soil nutrients are commonly attached to the finest particles and their removal naturally reduces soil fertility. Over periods of time fertile soils then become coarser and in some cases, more “stony.” Soil erosion is not exclusively a modern phenomenon. In many societies, the environmental and man-made pressures which I have listed have led to the cultivation of unsuitable land and erosion of which any form of harvest is difficult.
In Greece, forest clearance and population stresses have led to severe soil erosion in the period between 4000 to 3000 BC. Upon the Southern Chalklands of Britain, Neolithic and Bronze Age clearance of wooded landscapes incurred by the lack of wisdom gave rise to substantial erosion.
Without the presence of the Holy Spirit residing within our hearts – the erosion of the hearts of man will continue to harden like stone and manifest as short-term results acquired by self-serving agendas. For even the elect are now being deceived by the lure of eroding principles which end result is moral compromises. The church along with mankind in general has polarized into sociopolitical cultures which are not in alignment with the kingdom and government of God.
The sociopolitical right has led many into the love of money, self, economic Darwinism (survival of the fittest / natural selection)and a brutal / distorted form of capitalism while the sociopolitical left is leading many into the acceptance of what what was once morally incomprehensible a generation ago, entitlement and reliance upon the state. The conservative right is out of touch with the real man and the liberal left is out of touch with reality.
The lack of godly wisdom along with the dead works of man-centered and compromised religion will find that the fertility of their once prosperous soil has now been eroded and lost. Both Moses and Pharaoh received the same prophetic message to release or set His people free to worship Him in the wilderness. Moses heard this directive or message from God in the form of a burning bush and Pharaoh heard the same message through the voice of the prophet. The fire of God is proclaiming the same message today to those who have been blessed with prophetic authority. The difference between these two men was simply the precondition of their heart when the same message and the same fire of God’s word touched them. Moses had a fertile heart like wax and when the fire of God’s word touched it – it melted as transparent. On the other hand, Pharaoh had an eroded heart like clay and when the fire of God’s word touched his heart – it became hard and stony.
“This is what the LORD says: ‘In the time of my favor I will answer you, and in the day of salvation I will help you; I will keep you and will make you to be a covenant for the people, to restore the land and to reassign its desolate inheritances.'”
There will be future geopolitical issues in regard to water management within such places as the United States, China and Europe. All of these countries and among others, will see water as a national security issue, whether it is for access, management or shortage. Control and access to water will also be important for their industries as well as for people’s consumption and general well-being. We are already seeing the signs of physical and potential war in Middle East over water as well as verbal assaults between states or within the US. Keep an eye on the water sources in Israel as a primer to future events unfolding.
Some 1.1 billion people in developing countries have inadequate access to water. 2.6 billion people lack basic sanitation facilitated by water. 1.8 million Children die each year as a result of diarrhea. 443 million school days are lost each year from water-related illness. 400 million children (1 in 5 from the developing world) have no access to safe water. 1.4 million children will die each year from lack of access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation.
A mere 12 percent of the world’s population uses 85 percent of its water and these 12 percent do not live in the Third World. It takes a great deal of water to manufacture our daily goods: 1 newspaper takes 150 gallons, 1 liter of orange juice takes 1000 gallons, 1 pound of beef takes 2500 gallons and 1 new car takes 40,000 gallons of water.
The neglect of good stewardship in regard to water management has already manifested as both natural and spiritual rivers which once flowed freely have dried up and are now parched as cracked clay. Water is representative of the Holy Spirit’s attributes. It’s poor management has been polluted by religious deception, manipulation, greed and control. This mismanagement, has left millions throughout the centuries dying of spiritual thirst suppressed under religious dogma which denies its power, anointing, and gifts. God has designed humanity as such that it cannot survive without water for more than a few days. As stated earlier, water is representative of the Holy Spirit and our daily stewardship and consumption is vital to our natural and spiritual well-being.
How the church has stewarded the Lord’s life-giving and life-sustaining gift of the Holy Spirit is beginning to show its dehydrating affect within the environment of man-based religion. Both natural and spiritual thirst will drive people into desperate measures in how they interact with each other. We see a clear illustration of this in 2 Kings 6 & 7 when “civilized” people were driven to eat their own children and drink bird dung as they clung to life at all cost.
Wolves in sheep’s clothing have attempted to cheaply sell the attributes and work of the Holy Spirit and their season of exposure has already begun as many reading this already know. Many within the church have wasted and treated the giver of life and gifts as “common” for generations. A divine rationing is being instituted by the Lord as this season of spiritual drought draws to a close.
Those who abuse will be cut-off. God will never rescind a spiritual gift. But, He will take way or cut-off the opportunity to use or abuse it! Those who waste will thirst! Those who steward well will be given more! The days of spiritual dehydration are over for the Lord’s children who thirst for righteousness.
“But whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never be thirsty again. The water that I will give him will become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life.”
Not so long ago, there was a high demand in the U.S. for buffalo robes which is the primary reason the buffalo were hunted by “non-inhabitants” of their geographical region.
So-called sportsmen would even stand on moving trains and hunt the animals for nothing more than their skins to make a robe for the financial elite and the tongues which were a delicacy. The rest or majority of this magnificent creature was left in the field to rot. The over-hunting of the buffalo almost spelled their extinction.
Native Americans in contrast, realized how dependent they were on the buffalo and utilized just about every part of the animal for their survival. It wasn’t just food or nourishment that the buffalo provided. The skins were used to construct a shelter and for warmth during cold seasons. Needles, thread and even spoons were made from God’s rich provision in nature.
The systems and leaders of world religions reflect the same dynamic in the flowing robes which they adorn at the expense of those who are the natural or rightful inhabitants. Religion deifies itself in the number of its converts – but like the buffalo, only a small portion of what they have to offer is truly utilized and the majority of what’s inside of a person (e.g. gifts, talents, creativity and abilities) are left in the field to rot.
The true church of Jesus Christ – the sons of God, like the Native American, understands that its survival is the reliance and appreciation of what every part of body has to offer. The Lord in this hour is rightly connecting His Body – Those who are called by His name and hear His voice. The Lord set a rainbow in sky as a lasting covenant to never destroy man again. However, this covenant runs much deeper in the spirit of prophetic understanding. It was a sign in regard to our stewardship of each other and that we would not destroy each other! Humanity, after all of these millennium is still killing and warring en-mass and yet, we prefer to call our ourselves “civilized.” Every one of us has a unique hue or color of grace (like the rainbow) which is expressed in our individuality, creativity, talents, and gifting. Just as the rainbow reflects all of the color spectrum to create light – so does the Body of Christ. It’s only when all of the various colors of grace (you and I) come together in one accord does Light shine and become invisible to show its true source (Jesus Christ). You and I are the rainbow of His everlasting covenant.
“And He who sat there was like a jasper and a Sardius stone in appearance; and there was a rainbow (you and I) around the throne, in appearance like an emerald.”
INTRODUCTION OF FOREIGN SPECIES
One day in November, 1532, the New World and the Old World collided. The Spaniards with just a small band of soldiers engaged the Incas in battle. The Spaniards attacked the imperial army of the Incas in the highlands of Peru and before the day was out, they had massacred 7,000 people and taken control of the Inca Empire. Not a single Spanish life was lost in the process. Why was the balance of power so uneven between the Old World and the New World? And why in the centuries that followed, were Europeans the ones who conquered so much of the globe and not the other way around?
For two years, a band of Spanish conquistadors has been traveling in search of gold and glory. They were not professional soldiers, but mercenaries and adventurers led by a retired army captain – Francisco Pizarro. He’s already made a fortune for himself in the colonies of Central America and now he’s taking his men south, into unknown territory. They are the first Europeans to have climbed the Andes and ventured this far into the continent of South America.
Pizarro and conquistadors eventually found local inhabitants. As they continue to travel, they find evidence of a very large and powerful native civilization. They’ve just reached the edge of the mighty Inca Empire. For the Indians and Spaniards alike, any encounter is a clash of society, institutions and culture. These Indians have never seen white men before and have no idea of the threat they represent. They could not have imagined that within a few days, these strangers will turn their world upside down.
The effects or invasion of foreign species or influences on native or natural populations have ultimately yielded disastrous results or the collapse of many societies throughout history. Invasion of one species upon another is rarely won and the end result determined due to the number of its combatants. It is through the weaponry and most importantly, the germs which the invaders carry. (Invaders are usually far inferior in number but far superior in immunity, strategy and skill in utilizing their weapons of war). Spiritual weapons of warfare wielding tremendous power were provided by the Lord through the Holy Spirit. However, the training, proficiency and skill at using these mighty weapons have been lost and antiquated due to a lack of true spiritual teachers and replaced by man-centered dogmas and ideologies which deny the power of the Spirit.
It did not take long for the introduction and the effects of unbridled spiritual conquest and religious germs carried by man to conquer, infect and spread across the world as well as within the church. Those who were “native” or natural to the gospel were soon defeated on many fronts. Spiritual invasion under the banner of religion has taken many captives which have been placed in religious bondage and slavery. It is the affect of germs and not so much the steel of swords, guns and generalship that would end up being the greatest killer and exterminator of entire tribes. The germs of religion are likewise very contagious and easily transferred from one person to another. Its conquest has and will demand human blood rather than the blood of Christ which is sufficient.
The history of “Christianity” when viewed at face value has been diseased and weakened with infection caused by the spread of greed and the lust for power. We are in the later days, and the Lord is pouring out his Spirit upon all flesh to bring healing into the Body of Christ. The power of this statement is at the personal level for the Lord is preparing a bride without spot or wrinkle. He is pouring out His Spirit upon all of the church’s “flesh” which has manifested as the weakening and even collapse of the church’s biological and spiritual mandate to exhibit his love to the world. Rather, as stated earlier, the church throughout history has openly displayed the stains of blood, conquest, greed, manipulation and control.
“In all these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us. For I am sure that neither death nor life, nor angels nor rulers, nor things present nor things to come, nor powers, nor height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.”
As of January 31, 2012 the world human population is estimated to be 6.99 billion. With that said how can we define if overpopulation on a global level has actually or already occurred? The rapid increase in human population is expected to reach between 8.5 and 10 billion between the 2040 and 2050.
These numbers show us that humans are now 10,000 times more common than we should be in regard to historical population trends which is interesting. I believe that there is a spiritual reason why population has strangely and very rapidly exploded since the Balfour Declaration of 1917. Please note that at the turn of 20th century the entire world’s population built upon throughout all of history was only 1.6 billion. Why the sudden and drastic upswing?
The recognition and reestablishment of Israel as a nation was the equivalent of pressing the “fast-forward button” in the spirit realm. Not only did population begin to skyrocket – but also the necessary military and communication based technological explosions required to fulfill biblical prophecy were introduced. Every individual who was “conceived” by the spirit before the foundations of the earth has been given an opportunity of an abundant life and to witness the hand and love of God’s salvation. The acceleration of this age and dispensation has been driven by the choices of mankind and thus the population boom to manifest all that was ordained before time itself.
The US National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition has stated the maximum U.S. population for a sustainable economy at 200 million of which we are already markedly over. Simply put, each person on earth at this time requires a third more land to supply his or her needs for the quality of life they are accustomed to. This is substantially more than what the planet can supply with any lasting sustainability.
As prophecy accelerates and is realized in our lives within this generation – Humanity and the church will experience the same affects of overpopulation. The difference between the true church and the systems built upon religious stubble will be the response of its followers in accepting people into their homes and the humility it will take to pool resources with others. The day is soon coming when the openness of our hearts and the doors of our homes to others (family and non-family alike) will define our genuine relationship with the Lord, our love and our true obedience to the Spirit.
I cannot stress enough that the days ahead will bring a whole new meaning to the word “home church” as many homes will reflect multiple families or friends living together out of necessity. The natural economy and spiritual environment will test the hearts of man. Wisdom is required today if we are to be ready for what is certain to unfold tomorrow. A new positioning of our hearts and compassion is being mandated and will define our legacy as a son or daughter of God. This will define our fingerprint on eternity.
“Yet I hold this against you: You have forsaken the love you had at first. 5 Consider how far you have fallen! Repent and do the things you did at first. If you do not repent, I will come to you and remove your lamp stand from its place.”
Climate Change is significant in that it manifests as a lasting change in the distribution of weather patterns. The changes which occur can be limited to a specific region or may occur across the whole earth. The earth’s natural weather patterns are scaled in relation or rate at which energy is received from the “sun” and the rate at which it is lost to space.
The day is at hand in which energy is flowing from the Son and is being distributed by the winds of change and deep currents of the Holy Spirit. The body of Christ is being re-energized to embrace the climate change in the spirit that is now upon us. A global warming of hearts is melting the icy coldness of sin which has ravaged the earth. The Later Rain has begun to pour as a great Cloud of Witnesses rejoice.
Volcanic eruptions release gases and particulates into the atmosphere. Eruptions large enough to affect climate occur on average several times per century and cause cooling by partially blocking the transmission of solar radiation by the sun to the Earth’s surface for a period of a few years. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991, the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century after the 1912 eruption of Novarupta affected the climate substantially.
Global temperatures decreased by about 0.5C (0.9F). The eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815 caused the “Year Without a Summer.” The Lord in this hour is directing spiritual plate tectonics where deep calls unto deep and are producing eruptions into the atmosphere of the church and covering those who know His name and presence with protection and grace as the skies and days grow darker and darker.
“Deep calls to deep in the roar of your waterfalls; all your waves and breakers have swept over me.”
THE BUILD UP OF TOXINS IN THE ENVIRONMENT
The build up of toxins in the environment has as much spiritual application as it does in the natural. Both have had devastating effects upon mankind at both a personal and corporate (societal) level.
Despite his fame, Jeffrey Amherst’s name became tarnished by stories of smallpox-infected blankets used as germ warfare against American Indians. These stories are reported, for example, in Carl Waldman’s “Atlas of the North American Indian.” Waldman writes, in reference to a siege of Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh) by Chief Pontiac’s forces during the summer of 1763:
“…Captain Simeon Ecuyer had bought time by sending smallpox-infected blankets and handkerchiefs to the Indians surrounding the fort — an early example of biological warfare — which started an epidemic among them. Amherst himself had encouraged this tactic in a letter to Ecuyer.”
Historian Francis Parkman, in his book “The Conspiracy of Pontiac and Indian War after the conquest of Canada” (ref. Boston: Little, Brown, 1886) refers to a postscript in an earlier letter from Amherst to Bouquet wondering whether smallpox could not be spread among the Indians:
“Could it not be contrived to send the Small Pox among those disaffected tribes of Indians? We must on this occasion use every stratagem in our power to reduce them.” (Ref. Vol. II, p. 39.)
Spiritual warfare in a biological form (spread by mankind to infect mankind) is what gave birth to religion and its systems. It is natural or biological in that it is passed from one person to another. It is spiritual in that demonic forces (principalities) are directing its spread and geographical patterns. The spirit of antichrist has been providing “infected blankets” of false comfort, security, power and perversion of thought since the beginning of our creation. Many are sleeping under the blankets of spiritual prostitution and have negated the cross for what is sensual and pleasing to the flesh. The Harlot is intoxicating and will continue to grow more and more contagious to those who reside within the bed-chambers of religion and its environment.
“For all the nations have drunk the maddening wine of her adulteries. The kings of the earth committed adultery with her, and the merchants of the earth grew rich from her excessive luxuries.”
Saudi Arabia’s offshore hydrocarbon program is a crucial component of that country’s effort to meet greater production targets. Saudi quote: “Saudi Aramco is shifting resources to bolster its current offshore activities, drill new wells, and adopt advanced technologies to optimize output.” Why would Saudi Arabia whom supposedly holds the worlds largest oil reserves on land begin to drill offshore which is much, much more expense?
I believe that the world has hit peak oil production for the its 6.5 billion people and simply cannot sustain the future demand going forward. Energy prices in 2016 will be drastically different than today and will cause a shift in our quality of life as we know it. The energy locked within oil – is and will intensify as the harbinger of wars, the generator of the lust of money and greed, and the ransom of which we are enslaved. Ethanol from corn is a delusion bordering on a flat out lie as Ethanol is economically unpractical and not a viable solution as it would require every square mile of our agricultural fields just to make a dent in the current energy demand. Our soil as discussed earlier is already a dependent drug addict due to decades of pesticides and fertilizers (made from oil) which have rendered the original or natural nutrient content about useless.
The tractors to produce and the trucks to supply our food supply burns oil. Just one tire to propel one these machines requires 7 gallons of oil. The truth is that the human race has also become an addict to oil and I sincerely believe that the numbers in regard to population do not support the next 30 years. From my research – there is only enough grade crude oil in ANWR to power the nation for 6-12 months due to the shear vastness of our intake. All of the hype commercialized by energy companies and politicians simply does not add up.
Oil and the lack thereof in my opinion is going to change the complexion of the next generation. I may be wrong. But if I’m not; then everything that we know as civilized will be turned on its ear without a viable alternative. Everything that supports civilization as we know it hinges upon oil…Even toothpaste and your toothbrush would cease to exist! Don’t believe the hype machine of politics and corporations. Something is not adding up in everything that I research in regard to peak oil and the sustaining of 8 billion people on the planet with the primary god and life-line being oil. Energy and how it is acquired, processed, stewarded, and sustained will have deep natural consequences unless foresight, creativity, and action is not developed today. The same holds true in the spiritual aspects of energy.
The corporate church is defined by the current generation that stewards it. Past generations have spent natural and spiritual energy without wisdom and prophetic insight. The gift of prophecy is a spiritual blessing given by Christ to the church which provides a road map or compass in how we are to expend spiritual energy. Prophecy also provides us with the least path of resistance to get the most value from what has been or will be expended. Sadly, like much of our natural energy abuses – the systems of religion have only mirrored what we do in the natural with little regard or investment into the next generation.
Our life is but a vapor in time and this is our dress rehearsal for eternity. There is no “take two” or a second chance to do it all over again. If the people of the world do not seek wisdom in developing an alternative natural and spiritual energy source today, they will greatly regret it tomorrow. All of us have had thoughts if “I could just go back in time and do it over again.” These thoughts manifest from the seeds of “regret” which we have chose to sow in our past. Our future state as we grow older will be defined by the amount of regret we have sown into the soil of mankind. The energy of the church is non-renewable because everyone of us will die. However, we can leave the next generation the keys to an abundant life as well as natural and spiritual wellness.
“They will be radiant because of the Lord’s good gifts; the abundant crops of grain, new wine, and olive oil, and the healthy flocks and herds. Their life will be like a watered garden, and all their sorrows will be gone.”